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Zile de nastere - Birthdays

Garvey was a Jamaican-born American proponent of black nationalism. His Universal Negro Improvement Association, established in 1914 to promote racial pride, quickly spread in black communities throughout the US, the Caribbean, and Central America, and Garvey became the most influential black leader of the early 1920s, with a following some two million strong. However, his movement foundered after his 1922 indictment for mail fraud. What religious movement considers Garvey one of its prophets? Discuss
Gilmore was a prominent Australian socialist poet and journalist who gained a reputation as a champion of the working class and the oppressed. In the late 1890s, she moved to the New Australia utopian socialist settlement in Paraguay, but she returned to Australia following its failure. In 1908, she became an editor of the Australian Workers' Union newspaper, and she published her first volume of poems two years later. On what denomination of Australian currency does her image and poetry appear? Discuss
When she was just 13, Virginia Clemm married her first cousin Edgar Allan Poe, who was 14 years her senior. For years, scholars have debated about the nature of this relationship, which was cut short when Virginia tragically died of tuberculosis at 24. Edgar was clearly smitten by his young bride—and muse—and was devastated by her death. Still, some believe that the two were more like siblings than spouses and never actually consummated their marriage. What has led them to this conclusion? Discuss
Pius VII became pope in 1800, at a time of turmoil for the Catholic Church. A decade earlier, during the early stages of the French Revolution, the National Assembly tried to subordinate the Church to the state. In 1801, Pius and Napoleon negotiated an end to the breach, but relations remained strained. In one notable incident, Napoleon took his crown from the pope's hands during a ceremony and crowned himself. What unusual headgear did Pius VII allegedly wear during his own coronation and why? Discuss
After earning his PhD at Cambridge University in 1943, British biochemist Frederick Sanger decided to continue conducting his research at his alma mater. He remained there for the entirety of his four-decade career, making discoveries about the structure of proteins, particularly insulin, as well as DNA sequencing that would earn him not one but two Nobel prizes. He is only the fourth person in history to have earned this distinction. Who are the other three two-time Nobel laureates? Discuss
Financier and philanthropist "Diamond Jim" Brady exemplified the American Dream. He started out as a bellboy and messenger before getting a job with the New York Central Railroad and then working his way up through the industry, eventually amassing a fortune selling railroad supplies. With his newfound wealth, he indulged in his two greatest weaknesses: food—one restaurant owner reportedly called him "the best 25 customers I ever had"—and jewels. What was supposedly a typical meal for Brady? Discuss
A German patriot and educator at a time when Europe was actively trying to free itself from Napoleonic rule, Jahn founded a gymnastic society, Turnverein, to build strength and fellowship among young people as well as help foster a nationalistic spirit among members. After Napoleon's defeat, German leaders came to view the once-sanctioned organization as a threat and had its founder arrested in 1819 and a national ban placed on gymnastics. What now-standard gymnastics equipment did Jahn invent? Discuss
Few people in recent history have transformed popular music—rock and roll in particular—the way Leo Fender did. A self-taught radio repairman, Fender began inventing electronic instruments in the 1940s and is responsible for the first mass-produced solid-body electric guitar, the first widely used electric bass, and many other revolutionary instruments. His Fender Musical Instruments Corporation remains a leading manufacturer of instruments and amplifiers. Which famous bassists favor Fender? Discuss
Australian-born British actress, journalist, and novelist P. L. Travers is best remembered for her series of fictional children's books about the prim, vain, imperious, acerbic, and mysteriously magical nanny Mary Poppins. The books were a great success, and Disney's award-winning 1964 film adaptation made the author even more famous. Travers worked as an adviser on the film, but in the end she was unhappy with it and never allowed anyone related to the production to adapt her work again. Why? Discuss
Orphaned in his youth, Henson went to work on a merchant ship at the age of 12. After nearly a decade at sea, he met American explorer Robert E. Peary and became his valet and assistant for the next 22 years. In 1909, Henson accompanied Peary on the first expedition credited with reaching the North Pole. Though Peary received many honors for this achievement, Henson, an African American, was largely ignored. What did both men leave behind when they returned to mainland America from the Arctic? Discuss
Heathcoat was not the first person to invent a lacemaking machine, but his apparatus was the first to produce an exact imitation of handmade pillow lace. Patented in 1809, it was the most complex textile machine then in existence. Heathcoat decided to capitalize on his invention by opening a lace mill, but textile workers, angry that they were being replaced by machines, attacked and destroyed it in 1816. Undeterred, he opened a new mill elsewhere. What happened to the steam plough he invented? Discuss
Born into slavery, Taylor was secretly—and illegally—educated during her childhood. As a young woman, she served as a Union army nurse during the American Civil War. She became the first African American to openly teach former slaves in Georgia and the first African-American woman to publish a memoir of her wartime experiences, Reminiscences of My Life in Camp with the 33d United States Colored Troops, Late 1st S.C. Volunteers. How did she end up with Union troops in the first place? Discuss
Several years after immigrating to Australia from England, Eyre decided to explore his new home. His expeditions took him, often with one or more Aboriginal companions, through some of Australia's harshest terrain. He subsequently became a British colonial official, serving for a time as a protector of Aborigines. His sympathies, however, appear not to have extended to other marginalized groups. As governor of Jamaica, Eyre authorized hundreds of executions while suppressing what uprising? Discuss
Mehta was a leading Indian lawyer, politician, and activist during the time of British rule in India. Though he was not directly opposed to the crown, he advocated for greater Indian autonomy and self-government. He is considered the father of municipal government in Bombay and promoted education, sanitation, and healthcare reforms in the city and around India. In 1885, he helped found the Indian National Congress, and he later served as its president. What was his opinion of English culture? Discuss
After being denied ordination at least once, German Jewess Regina Jonas finally found a rabbi willing to defy convention and make her, in 1935, the first ordained woman rabbi. A victim of the Holocaust, Jonas's story went forgotten for many years, only coming to light when some of her writings, including a document titled "Lectures of the One and Only Woman Rabbi, Regina Jonas," were rediscovered long after her death at the hands of the Nazis. Where was she when she delivered these lectures? Discuss
The reign of Constantine I was a trying one. He succeeded his father as king of Greece in 1913 and was almost immediately faced with World War I. His neutralist, yet essentially pro-German, attitude caused the Allies and his Greek opponents to force his abdication and send him into exile in 1917. His leading opponent's fall from power in 1920 opened the door for Constantine to be restored to the throne, but his homecoming was short lived. Why did he abdicate for a second time in 1922? Discuss
The daughter of an amateur astronomer, Mitchell spent her formative years learning to observe the heavens. When she was 29, she discovered a comet. For her achievement, she was awarded a gold medal by the king of Denmark. Her reputation as an astronomer thus secured, she soon became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and, thereafter, to the American Association for the Advancement of Science. To which of America's Founding Fathers was Mitchell distantly related? Discuss
A man of shifting alliances, Philip the Good ruled Burgundy at the height of its prestige and presided over one of Europe's most lavish courts. After his father was murdered during a meeting with the dauphin of France—the future King Charles VII—Philip formed an alliance with England but then broke it to recognize Charles as king and gain French favor. Phillip soon turned on Charles, however, sheltering his rebellious son, the eventual King Louis XI. Who was captured by Phillip's troops in 1430? Discuss
Ford was a prominent American industrialist and innovator of mass production via the assembly line. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and made car ownership affordable to many. Though controversial, Ford was undeniably one of the most influential men of the 20th century. He instituted an eight-hour workday in his factories and paid his workers relatively well but also strenuously opposed labor unions. Whom did he employ to intimidate union organizers? Discuss
The only person to be awarded a Nobel Peace Prize posthumously, Hammarskjöld was the second Secretary General of the United Nations. In this role, he greatly extended the influence of the United Nations and personally led peace missions, though he clashed with the Soviet Union for his vigorous attempts to diffuse civil strife in the newly independent Congo. He served as Secretary General until his death in a mysterious plane crash in 1961. What conspiracy theories surround his death? Discuss
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